'National narcissism' means Britons, Americans and Russians ALL think their country was responsible for winning WWII

https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/08/06/1907992116

People in Britain, America and Russia all greatly overestimate their country’s contribution to defeating Adolf Hitler, according to new research.
A survey found people from each country think it was responsible for contributing more than half to the victory - the UK (51%), the US (54%) and Russia (75%).

Experts say that this is vastly more than the proportion of credit afforded to them by the rest of the world in a phenomenon dubbed ‘national narcissism.’
For the UK, the average plunges to 19 per cent in the eyes of those from seven other Allied countries - and Germany, Italy and Japan who fought against them.

For Russia it crashes to 20 per cent while America enjoys a 27 per cent share of the credit US - still way below the country’s own self-belief in victory.
Popular culture may go some way to explaining this disparity in the West, experts suggest, by skewing the view of each nation’s role.

The findings are based on responses from 1,338 people aged 18 or over from the 11 countries.
Over 100 participants from each were questioned by experts from Washington University in St. Louis.

The estimated number of military deaths suffered by Russia was 9,750,000 - compared to 383,600 and 416,800 for the UK and US respectively.
‘If deaths in the war are considered a proxy of a nation’s contributions, the Soviet Union did carry much of the burden,’ said lead author Professor Henry Roediger III, a psychologist at the university.

'Of course, there can be no fully accurate, objective estimate as to percentage of responsibility of national efforts in WWII, but a proxy measure that can inform the discussion is the number of military casualties.

‘However, people in the other 10 countries seemed to minimise Soviet contributions relative to American contributions.’
American movies, TV shows and novels place much less emphasis on the Eastern front in Europe than on the Western front and the war in the Pacific, researchers noted.

Most Americans would probably be surprised the Soviet Union had almost two-and-a-half times the number of soldiers killed in the Battle of Stalingrad - around 1,100,000 - than the US did in the entire war.

However, this does not explain Russia’s high rate of self-belief, which may simply be due to how history is taught in the country.

The research team, which included colleagues in Germany, Italy and Japan, said national narcissism was identified in a previous study asking people to estimate their countries contribution to world history.

This national narcissism means ethnic groups view themselves in a superior light to others, researchers say,

As in the estimates of responsibility of World War II, there was ‘great over-claiming’ with the highest again from the Russians (61 per cent) - followed by the UK (55 percent).

It was noteable the figures from Russia and the UK were ‘particularly high,’ said Prof Roediger.

Professor Roediger added: 'The perception of people in other countries tends to match that of people in the US in assigning somewhat greater responsibility for victory in WWII to the United States.

'We have referred to the overestimation of the contribution of one’s nation to the war effort as “national narcissism”.

'Narcissism is a term used to describe a personality disorder in individual psychology and attributing labels used for individuals to groups can be a fraught enterprise.

'Nonetheless, we feel the term is warranted. Narcissism carries both the positive aspects of glorifying one’s self or one’s group and also the dark overtones of one’s group or nation imposing its values and traditions on others, often through conquest and force.

‘Certainly, that was the case for both Germany and Japan in World War II and it is a common theme in history.’

[SIZE=5]WHAT WAS RUSSIA’S ROLE IN HELPING TO DEFEAT HITLER?[/SIZE]

Without the sacrifice of more than 20 million Soviets on the Eastern Front, the United States and Great Britain would not have been able to defeat Germany.

The estimated number of military deaths suffered by Russia was 9,750,000 - compared to 383,600 and 416,800 for the UK and US respectively.

When the Soviets signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939, it appeared there was no hope for any kind of alliance.
The Soviet occupation of eastern Poland in September and the ‘Winter War’ against Finland in December made a potential alliance even more difficult.
Despite the mounting tension between the two countries, US President Theodore Roosevelt understood Nazi Germany, not the Soviet Union, was the greatest threat to peace.
Roosevelt was responsible for including the Soviet Union in the Lend-Lease bill passed in 1941.
This saw the US supply the United Kingdom, Free France, the Republic of China, and later the Soviet Union and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.

When Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union in June of 1941, the alliance between the Soviets and the Allies was sealed.
In December of 1941 when the US entered the war, the collaboration between the three major powers - the Soviet Union, United States, and Great Britain - intensified.
Tensions arose in the aftermath of World War Two, when the Soviets began to occupy Eastern Europe and the rise of the ‘Iron Curtain’ between the West and Soviet Russia.

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Red Army troops storming an apartment block amidst the ruins of war-torn Stalingrad in 1941

were it not for entry of the united states into the war in 1941, britain, russia, france and the african colonial territories would have been subdued and brought under german greater government or under the empire of japan.
neither russia, britain nor france had the economic or technological capacity to beat the axis powers and that was very obvious. nothing much was left of them and they were collapsing before the US sanctioned Japan hard enough to provoke them to strike.

France was already occupied. US did not have the technology either but their industries were protected from bombings because of the distance

Hitler was defeated because of the sacrifices of the soviet Union. I mean, even 80% of NAZI were on the Eastern front. If Hitler had not attacked Russia, there was no way UK or the US would have beaten Germany. The whole of Western Europe had already fallen and Rommel was running rampant in North Africa.

And remember UK included also Australia, Newzealand, Canada and South Africa. Despite this, they had been defeated in 1941 when they attempted to enter France. Only the English channel saved them

The war would not have been won without both America and the USSR. If you remove either from the equation, Germany would not have been beaten.

Stalin is once said to have proposed a toast to American mass production without which he said, the war would not have been won. General Zhukov acknowledged after the war that they could not have won without the US.

Look at the lend-lease figures from wikipedia:

Soviet production and upkeep was assisted by the Lend-Lease program from the United States and the United Kingdom. In the course of the war the US supplied $11 billion of materiel through Lend-Lease. This included 400,000 trucks, 12,000 armored vehicles (including 7,000 tanks), 11,400 aircraft and 1.75 million tons of food.[142] The British supplied aircraft including 3,000 Hurricanes and 4,000 other aircraft during the war. Five thousand tanks were provided by the British and Canada.

Missing from this figures is about 2000 locomotives.

Also, notice that between the allies, they supplied russia with about 12000 tanks. Remember that in key battles, the soviets gained victory by using less tanks than what they were given:
Battle of stalingrad: About 2000 tanks
Battle of Kursk: about 3600 tanks
Operation Bagration: about 5000 tanks

These were all key battles for Russia.

The lend-lease allowed the russians to focus a vast majority of its industrial capacity on armaments which is why it was able to prodigiouslly produce arms and out perform german although germany outperformed the russians in its industrial output (another quote from wikipedia):

Germany had far greater resources than did the USSR, and dwarfed its production in every matrix except for oil, having over five times the USSR’s coal production, over three times its iron production, three times its steel production, twice its electricity production, and about 2/3 of its oil production.[135]

German production of explosives from 1940–1944 was 1.595 million tons, along with 829,970 tons of powder. Consumption on all fronts during the same period was 1.493 million tons of explosives and 626,887 tons of powder.[136] From 1941–1945, the USSR produced only 505,000 tons of explosives and received 105,000 tons of Lend-Lease imports.[56]Germany outproduced the Soviet Union 3.16 to 1 in explosives tonnage.

Also, 400000 trucks greatly helped with logistics and troop movements

On the part of the US, they needed a country like Russia who were fighting a do or die war and being a dictatorship, russia can sustain far higher loses than would a democracy like the US. Infact, some analysts point out that Russia’s most celebrated general Zhukov could not have survived in a western army because of the continuously heavy loses he took.

These two countries definitely needed each other. So its not a question whether Russia or America won. Its both of them working together that won.

it is true that soviet union sacrificed men. For the battle for berlin for example, zhukov mobilized 10 million men. that number is probably all adult men in Kenya.

soviet union.

Americans made the allies win. The Axis could not win without Japan either. Americans forced Japan to surrender with those atomic bombs. That’s when the allies won the war. When Japan surrendered, it was downhill from there. Germany and Italy became minced meat. The US forced a win by taking Japan out of that equation. Simple as that.

Bro, hii historia umetoa wapi? Japan was the last Axis power to surrender. Hell, there was even a guy who fought on mpaka 1974 ( Hiroo Onoda - Wikipedia ) . By the time they surrendered, Hitler was dead and so was mussolini. Other Axis powers or co-belligerent nations like Romania, Finland, Hungary, Italy etc had already switched sides and declared war on Germany

People who have not read history and know ww2 from Hollywood know that Japan surrendered because of the atomic bombs. But people who read know that the real reason Japan surrendered was because Stalin declared war on Japan and wanted to occupy Hokkaido ala Germany. The spector of a two front war and the Russia wanting to revenge for a humiliating defeat 40 years earlier made the emperor surrender.
Why do you think Hirohito was not prosecuted like other war criminals?

Germans started both ww1 and 2 what measures have been put to restrain their superiority thinking . Hitler was not the only NAZI 85% of Germans were and hamuwezi nidanganya that kind of thinking iliisha hivo .

jamaa wewe unasoma alternative history ama?

wanacheza chini. they havent forgotten. DW is usually full of propaganda to cleanse them. they have slowly established an economic dictatorship in europe, even going to the extent of stamping the Euro on everyone. wakianza kulimana saa hii tutaisha wote.