Makonde community now sever all links with Mozambique

I find this very interesting. Do you know of any other community seeking Kenyan citizenship en mass with roots in another African country ?

90% of all Kenyan tribes have roots in other countries.


lots of Somali refugees

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Bantu peoples is used as a general label for
the 300–600 ethnic groups in Africa who
speak Bantu languages.[1] They inhabit a
geographical area stretching east and
southward from Central Africa across the
African Great Lakes region down to Southern
Africa.[1] Bantu is a major branch of the
Niger-Congo language family spoken by most
populations in Africa. There are about 650
Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual
intelligibility,[2] though the distinction
between language and dialect is often
unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535
Around 3000 years ago, speakers of the
Proto-Bantu language group began a
millennia-long series of migrations eastward
from their homeland between West Africa
and Central Africa, at the border of eastern
Nigeria and Cameroon.[4] This Bantu
expansion first introduced Bantu peoples to
central, southern, and southeastern Africa,
regions they had previously been absent
from. The proto-Bantu migrants in the
process assimilated and/or displaced a
number of earlier inhabitants that they came
across, including Pygmy and Khoisan
populations in the center and south,
respectively. They also encountered some
Afro-Asiatic outlier groups in the southeast,
who had been there for centuries migrating
from Northeast Africa.[5][6]
Individual Bantu groups today often include
millions of people. Among these are the
Luba of the Democratic Republic of the
Congo, with over 13.5 million people; the
Zulu of South Africa, with over 10 million
people; the Sukuma of Tanzania which are
about eight million people, Kikuyu of Kenya,
with over six million people. Although only
around five million individuals speak the
Arabic-influenced Swahili language as their
mother tongue,[7] it is used as a lingua
franca by over 140 million people
throughout Southeast Africa.[8] Swahili also
serves as one of the official languages of the
African Union.
The word Bantu, and its variations, means
“people” or “humans”. The root in Proto-
Bantu is reconstructed as *-ntu. Versions of
the word Bantu (that is, the root plus the
class 2 noun class prefix *ba-) occur in all
Bantu languages: for example, as watu in
Swahili; bantu in Kikongo; batu in Lingala;
bato in Kiluba; bantu in Duala; abanto in
Gusii; andũ in Kamba and Kikuyu; abantu in
Kirundi, Zulu, Xhosa, Runyakitara,[9] and
Ganda; wandru in Shingazidja; abantru in
Mpondo; bĂŁtfu in Phuthi; bantfu in Swati;
banu in Lala; vanhu in Shona and Tsonga;
batho in Sesotho, Tswana and Northern
Sotho; antu in Meru; andu in Embu; vandu in
some Luhya dialects; vhathu in Venda; and
mbaityo in Tiv.
Origins and expansion
Main article: Bantu expansion
1 = 2000–1500 BC origin 2
= ca. 1500 BC first migrations 2.a
= Eastern Bantu, 2.b
= Western Bantu 3 = 1000–500 BC
Urewe nucleus of Eastern Bantu 4 – 7
= southward advance 9
= 500 BC–0 Congo nucleus 10
= 0–1000 AD last phase [10] [11] [12]
Current scholarly understanding places the
ancestral proto-Bantu homeland in West
Africa near the present-day southwestern
border of Nigeria and Cameroon c. 4,000
years ago (2000 B.C.), and regards the Bantu
languages as a branch of the Niger–Congo
language family.[13] This view represents a
resolution of debates in the 1960s over
competing theories advanced by Joseph
Greenberg and Malcolm Guthrie, in favor of
refinements of Greenberg’s theory. Based
on wide comparisons including non-Bantu
languages, Greenberg argued that Proto-
Bantu, the hypothetical ancestor of the
Bantu languages, had strong ancestral
affinities with a group of languages spoken in
Southeastern Nigeria. He proposed that
Bantu languages had spread east and south
from there, to secondary centers of further
dispersion, over hundreds of years.
Using a different comparative method
focused more exclusively on relationships
among Bantu languages, Guthrie argued for
a single Central African dispersal point
spreading at a roughly equal rate in all
directions. Subsequent research on
loanwords for adaptations in agriculture and
animal husbandry and on the wider Niger–
Congo language family rendered that thesis
untenable. In the 1990s, Jan Vansina
proposed a modification of Greenberg’s
ideas, in which dispersions from secondary
and tertiary centers resembled Guthrie’s
central node idea, but from a number of
regional centers rather than just one,
creating linguistic clusters.[14]
It is unclear exactly when the spread of
Bantu-speakers began from their core area
as hypothesized c. 5,000 years ago (3000
B.C.). By 3,500 years ago (1500 B.C.) in the
west, Bantu-speaking communities had
reached the great Central African rain forest,
and by 2,500 years ago (500 B.C.) pioneering
groups had emerged into the savannahs to
the south, in what are now the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Zambia.
Another stream of migration, moving east,
by 3,000 years ago (1000 B.C.) was creating a
major new population center near the Great
Lakes of East Africa, where a rich
environment supported a dense population.
Movements by small groups to the southeast
from the Great Lakes region were more
rapid, with initial settlements widely
dispersed near the coast and near rivers,
due to comparatively harsh farming
conditions in areas farther from water.
Pioneering groups had reached modern
KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa by A.D. 300
along the coast, and the modern Northern
Province (encompassed within the former
province of the Transvaal) by A.D. 500.[15]
Before the expansion of farming and herding
peoples, including those speaking Bantu
languages, Africa south of the equator was
populated by neolithic hunting and foraging
peoples. Some of them were ancestral to
proto- Khoisan-speaking peoples, whose
modern hunter-forager and linguistic
descendants, the Khoekhoe and San, occupy
the arid regions around the Kalahari desert.
The Hadza and Sandawe populations in
Tanzania comprise the other modern hunter-
forager remnant in Africa of these proto-
Khoisan-speaking peoples.
Over a period of many centuries, most
hunting-foraging peoples were displaced and
absorbed by incoming Bantu-speaking
communities, as well as by Ubangian, Nilotic,
and Sudanic language-speakers in North
Central and Eastern Africa. The Bantu
expansion was a long series of physical
migrations, a diffusion of language and
knowledge out into and in from neighboring
populations, and a creation of new societal
groups involving inter-marriage among
communities and small groups moving to
communities and small groups moving to
new areas.
After their movements from their original
homeland in West Africa, Bantus also
encountered in East Africa peoples of Afro-
Asiatic (mainly Cushitic) and Nilo-Saharan
(mainly Nilotic and Sudanic) ancestral origin.
As cattle terminology in use amongst the few
modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests,
the Bantu migrants would acquire cattle
from their new Cushitic neighbors. Linguistic
evidence also indicates that Bantus likely
borrowed the custom of milking cattle
directly from Cushitic peoples in the area.
[16] Later interactions between Bantu and
Cushitic peoples resulted in Bantu groups
with significant Cushitic ethnic admixture,
such as the Tutsi of the African Great Lakes
region; and culturo-linguistic influences, such
as the Herero herdsmen of southern Africa.
On the coastal section of East Africa, another
mixed Bantu community developed through
contact with Muslim Arab and Persian
traders. The Swahili culture that emerged
from these exchanges evinces many Arab
and Islamic influences not seen in traditional
Bantu culture, as do the many Afro-Arab
members of the Bantu Swahili people. With
its original speech community centered on
the coastal parts of Zanzibar, Kenya, and
Tanzania – a seaboard referred to as the
Swahili Coast – the Bantu Swahili language
contains many Arabic loan-words as a result
of these interactions.[19]
Between the 14th and 15th centuries, Bantu-
speaking states began to emerge in the
Great Lakes region in the savannah south of
the Central African rain forest. On the
Zambezi river, the Monomatapa kings built
the famous Great Zimbabwe complex, a
civilisation of what are today referred to as
the Shona people. From the 16th century
onward, the processes of state formation
amongst Bantu peoples increased in
frequency. This was probably due to denser
population (which led to more specialized
divisions of labor, including military power,
while making emigration more difficult); to
increased interaction amongst Bantu-
speaking communities with Chinese,
European, Indonesian, and Arab traders on
the coasts; to technological developments in
economic activity; and to new techniques in
the political-spiritual ritualization of royalty
as the source of national strength and health.