Cognates in Niger Congo Updated

“I ~ me”:

[ul]
[li]Root: *mVfrontfront → (e.g., /mi/ or /me/)[/li][LIST]
[li]Wolof: ma[/li][li]Kobiana: mé ~ ma- [1][/li][li]Fula: mi[/li][li]Gola: mẹ̃[/li][li]Gbeya: mǐ ~ mbǐ [2][/li][li]Akan (Twi): me[/li][li]Yoruba: mi ~ mo ~ èmi[/li][li]Igbo: m(ụ) ~ amị (dialectal)[/li][LIST]
[li]cf., Proto-Igboid *m̀-mɪ́ ~ *mə̃́ (“I, me”)[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Bantu: * ìme[/li][ul]
[li]Swahili: mimi[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Dogon: *mi [3][/li][li]***Mande (Niger-Volta): *mó̰ [4][/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“You (sg.)”:

[ul]
[li]Root: *mVbackback(°mo → °(w)o))[/li][LIST]
[li]Sua: mɔɔ[/li][li]Gola: mo[/li][li]Gbeya: mɛ́[/li][li]Zande: mò[/li][li]Proto-Senufic: *mo[/li][li]Tiefo: mo[/li][li]Kulango: ʊ ~ wʊ[/li][li]Akan (Twi): wo[/li][li]Ẹdo: u (subject) ~ (u)wὲ[/li][li]Yoruba: o (subject) ~ iwo[/li][li]Tiv: wé[/li][li]Efik: ò- (subject) ~ àfò[/li][li]Bekwarra: o- (subject) ~ àwō[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: ʊ̀- (subject) ~ ìʊe[/li][LIST]
[li]Kinyarwanda: u- (subject) ~ wowe[/li][li]Swahili: u- (subject) ~ wewe[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Dogon: *O[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“They”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °ɓa[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: ɓe[/li][li]Dagbani: bi[/li][li]Akan (Twi): wɔn[/li][li]Yoruba: (à)wọ́n (cf., Proto-Yoruboid *à-ɓã)[/li][li]Proto-Igboid: (1) *-ɓɛ́ (“they”) ; (2) *hã (“they”) ~ *(ɛ́ )-pwɛ̃ (“they”) | (high variability) [5][/li][LIST]
[li]Igbo proper (most varieties): ha ~ fa (< *hã ); Onicha Igbo (dialect): fa (< *hã) ~ nwó (< *-ɓɛ́)[/li][li]Agbọ̀: wẹ̀ (< *-ɓɛ́)[/li][li]Ụkwuanị: wá ~ wé (< *-ɓɛ́)[/li][/ul]
[li]Mbembe: bō[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *-bó[/li][ul]
[li]Kinyarwanda: bo[/li][li]Swahili: wao[/li][li]Zulu: bona[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Dogon: *bé (east) ~ *bU (north)[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“You (pl.)”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °NVcloseclose[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: on[/li][li]Serer: nuun[/li][li]Bijogo: -anɛ[/li][li]Proto-Gur: *nà ~ *ɲa[/li][li]Igbo: unu[/li][li]Proto-Idomoid: * (a)nʊ[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *V̀nue[/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: nyinyi[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Tongue”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-dem[/li][LIST]
[li]Tima: -lɛm (“lick”) (likely reflex)[/li][LIST]
[li]Note D: Tima falls under the non-genetic grouping called “Kordofanian”[/li][/ul]
[li]Lafofa: líáŋi (possible reflex) [6][/li][li]Fula: dem-ngal[/li][li]Proto-Cangin: *pe-ɗem [7][/li][ul]
[li]Lehar: pi̟ri̟m[/li][li]Safen: peɗem[/li][/ul]
[li]Wolof: làmmiñ [8][/li][li]Konyagi: ryèw [9][/li][li]Gubëeher: bu-lemes [10][/li][li]Limba: liṅ[/li][li]Mossi: zə-ləmdə[/li][li]Ewe: àdé[/li][li]Akan (Twi): tek-rem(a)[/li][li]Yoruba: ede (in the sense of “language, speech”)[/li][li]Igbo: íre[/li][li]Efik: édémè[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *-dímì[/li][ul]
[li]Swahili: ulimi[/li][li]Zulu: -limi[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: ɪ̰ɓɛ̰lɛʊ (possible reflex if assuming metathesis)[/li][li]Note E: While, as highlighted in linguistic literature, the words are almost certainly cognates, it’s important to recognize that words for “tongue” frequently have an onomatopoeic element to them and, thus, similar words for tongue appear worldwide. The global prototype forms are *lVp ~ *lVk ~ *lVt. [11] This could point to some kind of genuine connection between words in some families (unrelated ones included), or they may not. This can be seen in the examples below:[/li][ul]
[li]Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *lis- (“tongue”)[/li][li]Kanuri: tə-lam (“tongue”)[/li][li]Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *liek ~ m/s/g-l(j)ak (“to lick, tongue”)[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Person”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °nit(V)[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: neddo[/li][li]Wolof: nit[/li][li]Manjak: ba-nya[/li][li]Klao: nye [12][/li][li]Adele: e-ni[/li][li]Akan (Twi): nyi[/li][li]Yoruba: eni ~ oni[/li][LIST]
[li]cf., Proto-Yoruboid: *ɔ-nɪ̃̀[/li][/ul]
[li]Igbo: onye[/li][ul]
[li]cf., Proto-Igboid *ó-nĩ́C̃ẽ[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Bantu: *-ntu[/li][ul]
[li]Swahili: mtu[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Child:”

[ul]
[li]Root: °bi[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: ɓiɗ-ɗo [13][/li][li]Serer: o-ɓiy [14][/li][li]Bassari: a̟-ɓí [15][/li][li]Pajade: nǝm-be [16][/li][li]Mossi: bi(ga)[/li][li]Adele: e-bi [17][/li][li]Dagbani: bia[/li][li]Ewe: vi[/li][li]Bariba: bii[/li][li]Nupe: ēgī (/b/ —> /g/ shift)[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *bi-al- ~ *bí-ad- (“to give birth”) [18][/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“Two”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °di ~ *Ri → °ɓa-di[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: ɗiɗi[/li][li]Wolof: ñ-ar[/li][li]Day: di-í[/li][li]Fon: wè[/li][li]Akan (Twi Variety): abien[/li][li]Yoruba: (m)eji[/li][li]Igbo: abụọ[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *bàdí ~ *bìdí[/li][LIST]
[li]Kinyarwanda: bibiri[/li][li]Swahili: mbili[/li][li]Zulu: ezimbili[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Three”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °tat(V)[/li][LIST]
[li]Proto-Katlaic: *ʈʌʈ (likely reflex)[/li][LIST]
[li]Katla: ʌ̀-t̪ʌ́t̪[/li][/ul]
[li]Fula: tati[/li][li]Wolof: ñett[/li][li]Limba: -ta.t[/li][li]Sua: -ra.r[/li][li]Mom Jango: taz[/li][li]Proto-Kru: *ta ~ tã[/li][li]Akan (Twi Variety): abiêsá[/li][li]Fon: àtɔ̀n[/li][li]Yoruba: eta[/li][li]Igbo: atọ[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: -tátʊ̀[/li][ul]
[li]Kinyarwanda: bitatu[/li][li]Swahili: tatu[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: *taa.tʊ[/li][ul]
[li]Nembe: traị[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Dogon: *ta.n(dV)[/li][li]***Proto-Southwestern Mande: *sa(g)ba[/li][ul]
[li]Mandinka: saba[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Four”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °nai ~ naγi ~ naNi[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: nai[/li][li]Serer: naxik[/li][li]Wolof: ñ-ent[/li][li]Mom Jango: naz[/li][li]Proto-Kru: *(-)na ~ ɲiɛ[/li][li]Akan (Twi Variety): anan[/li][li]Fon: ènὲ[/li][li]Yoruba: (m)ẹrin[/li][li]Igbo: anọ[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *-nàì[/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: nne[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: *-no̰.ḭ[/li][ul]
[li]Nembe: inein[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Dogon: *nai[/li][li]***Proto-Southwest Mande: *naa.ni[/li][ul]
[li]Mandinka: nani[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Five”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °nU → ta-nU[/li][LIST]
[li]Gola: nó.no[/li][li]Akan (Twi Variety): ə̀-núḿ[/li][li]Ewe: atṍ[/li][li]Yoruba: (m)arun[/li][li]Igbo: ise[/li][li]Efik: ition[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *-táànò[/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: tano[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: *tʊ.ŋʊ̰.r̰ɔ̰[/li][ul]
[li]Nembe: sọnọ[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Dogon: *nu(m)V[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Dawn, daylight, tomorrow”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-ki ~ °-k(y)án ~ °-kì(a) [19][/li][LIST]
[li]Ndut-Palor: key [20][/li][li]Bassari: -xèy [21][/li][li]Akan (Twi): ahemadakye[/li][li]Igbo: chi[/li][LIST]
[li]echi (“tomorrow,” “the day adjacent to today”(< Proto-Igboid *í-ŋ̀-kí (n.)))[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Bantu: *ké [22][/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Eye”:

[ul]
[LIST]
[li]Proto-Rashadic: *y-ngid[/li][li]Wolof: bët ~ gët [23][/li][li]Fula: yit-ere [24][/li][li]Jola-Kasa: ji-cil [25][/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *-jíçò (possible reflex) [26][/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: jicho[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Bow (n.)”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-ta ~ °-taN[/li][LIST]
[li]Tegem: tʰɑɑi[/li][li]Gola: ta (“shoot with a bow”)[/li][li]Moore: taba[/li][li]Mumuye: ta[/li][li]Akan (Twi): òtá[/li][li]Igbo: -ta[/li][LIST]
[li]uta: “bow”[/li][/ul]
[li]Tiv: ta[/li][li]Anaang: ù-tíà[/li][li]Efik: ù-t ́ɪʀ́à[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: tá ~ táà ~ bo-ta (“war,” “bow”)[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-3abfcf709833c3e57ceec95392f81709
“Eat”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °di ( ~ °rik ~ °dik (alternative reconstructions [27]))[/li][LIST]
[li]Tegem: rri ~ rik[/li][li]Wolof: lekk[/li][li]Papel: dɛʔ[/li][li]Manjak: -re [28][/li][li]Mossi: di[/li][li]Temne: di[/li][li]Grebo: dí[/li][li]Gbeya: ri [29][/li][li]Bieri: di[/li][li]Proto-Ghana-Togo Mountains: *lǐ[/li][li]Ewe: du[/li][li]Yoruba: jẹ[/li][li]Igbo: rí[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *dí ~ *-dɪ́a [30][/li][LIST]
[li]Kikongo: di ~ dia[/li][li]Kinyarwanda: kurya[/li][li]Swahili: la[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Mande: *ɗE (spurious) [31][/li][ul]
[li]Mwi: li[/li][li]Bozo: dye[/li][li]Note F: These may have been borrowings into only these Mande languages above, since the Proto-Mande root is considered spurious, and since the words for “eat” in other Mande languages are typically very different (cf., Mende mɛ́; Kpelle mi, me, Bamana dúmu, Vai lɔ́ŋ; Maninka dómṵ, dámṵ, dáwṵ; Guro ɓɩ̄lɩ̄; Yaure ɓlɩ; Gban bȅ; Mwan ɓlē). [32][/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-65d5e85b3f3821cbc2c129cc8233c42a
“Spit (v.), saliva”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °tu(p)[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: tuttugol[/li][li]Proto-Cangin: *tuɣud[/li][li]Limba: tutu[/li][li]Ewe: ta[/li][li]Yoruba: tutọ[/li][li]Igbo: asụ[/li][LIST]
[li]cf., Proto-Igboid: *έ--tɪ́ã́ ~ έ--tɪ́ã́ʊ́[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Bantu: *tú̧id [33][/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-904f191446ac45cbd0f7dd25d2d3ea60
“Bite”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °dum[/li][LIST]
[li]Manjak: rume[/li][li]Balanta: doma[/li][li]Mossi: dumi[/li][li]Igbo: aru[/li][li]Efik: dom[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *dom[/li][LIST]
[li]Kikande: -lʊ́m- [34][/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-fe7ebeeaf8c56fede4f5f0762bf269c4
“Swallow”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °min- ~ °mi [35][/li][LIST]
[li]Kobiana: -min [36][/li][li]Akan (Twi): méné[/li][li]Ewe: mi[/li][li]Yoruba: mì[/li][li]Igbo: mị̀ (“suck”)[/li][li]Kam: mɛ̀t̚[/li][li]Efik: mɛn[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *mìņ [37][/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“To know”:

[ul]
[li]Serer: max[/li][li]Manjak: me[/li][li]Mossi: mi[/li][li]Dagbani: mi[/li][li]Yoruba: mọ̀ (cf., Proto-Yoruboid *mã̀)[/li][li]Igbo: má[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *manya ~ *man-[/li][LIST]
[li]Mbochi: mìá[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“To laugh”: [38]

[ul]
[li]Root: °mua- ~ °mu-[/li][LIST]
[li]Wolof: mung (“smile”) (rare)[/li][li]Sisaala: mɔŋ[/li][li]Adele: moma[/li][li]Gbaya: mama[/li][li]Proto-Ghana-Togo Mountains: *múma[/li][li]Nupe: mɔ[/li][li]Igbo: mụ (“laugh”)[/li][li]Efik: mam (“laugh (n.)”)[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“Sleep”:

[ul]
[li]Fula: ɗaan[/li][li]Serer: ɗaan[/li][li]Biafada: daanǝh[/li][li]Pajade: datta[/li][li]Gola: ḍa (“lie down”)[/li][li]Igbo: ụra (cf., Proto-Igboid *ɗáa̰)[/li][li]Efik: de[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *dá-ad-[/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: lala[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“To hear”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-n(y)u ~ °-n(y)u[ku] [39][/li][LIST]
[li]Proto-Talodi: *g-eenu/w- (“ear”)[/li][li]Rashad: nu/-n (“ear”)[/li][li]Kaalak: gu-no/u- (“ear”)[/li][li]Fula (Fulfulde variety): nan- (“hear”)[/li][li]Gola: ke-nu (“ear”)[/li][li]Bijogo: kɔnnɔ (“ear”)[/li][li]Grebo: nóá (“ear”)[/li][li]Baatonun: nua (“hear”)[/li][li]Logba: nu (“hear”)[/li][li]Igbo: nụ (“hear, sense”)[/li][li]Kọrọp: lu-nuŋ (“ear”)[/li][li]***Proto-Ijoid: naá (“hear”) (possible reflex)[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“To say”:

[ul]
[li]°Root: °ta-[/li][LIST]
[li]Awuna: ta[/li][li]Ẹdo: ta[/li][li]Igbo: sị[/li][li]Efik: te[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *ti[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“to be (d-stem):”

[ul]
[li]Root: °di[/li][LIST]
[li]Wolof: di [40][/li][li]Fula: ɗon (possible reflex)[/li][li]Akan: di ~ de[/li][li]Fon: ɖe ~ ɖò[/li][li]Igbo: dị[/li][li]Yoruba: jẹ[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *dì [41][/li][LIST]
[li]Kinyarwanda: -ri[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“To be (b-stem):”

[ul]
[li]Root: °bV ~ °ba[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: woni (possible reflex)[/li][li]Moore: be[/li][li]Akan (Twi): wɔn[/li][li]Yoruba: wà (locative)[/li][li]Igbo: bụ[/li][li]Gbaya: be[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *ba (“to be, to become”)[/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: wa[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Die, death”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °khwú ~ °ku ~ °kua[/li][LIST]
[li]Minianka: ku[/li][li]Proto-Ghana-Togo Mountains: kúí[/li][li]Akan (Twi): owu[/li][li]Ewe: kú[/li][li]Yoruba: kú (“die, be extinguished”)[/li][LIST]
[li]cf., “iku (“death”)”[/li][/ul]
[li]Igbo: nwụ (possible reflex)[/li][ul]
[li]cf., Proto-Igboid *έ-ɣʊ́̃ʊ́̃/wʊ́̃Nʊ ~ *ŋʊ́ʊ́[/li][/ul]
[li]Efik: kpa[/li][li]Tiv: kpé, -kú[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *kú̧ ~ *kú-a[/li][ul]
[li]Nzadi: kpá[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Cultivate”:

[ul]
[li]Note G: This root likely didn’t originally have strong agricultural connotations, since agricultural knowledge cannot be safely reconstructed (i.e., the proto-speakers were either full-time or [more likely] (semi-) sedentary hunter-gatherers).[/li][li]Fulani: rim [42][/li][li]Proto-Cangin: *li̟n [43][/li][LIST]
[li]Noon: lin[/li][li]Ndut: lin[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Bantu: *dìm (“cultivate (especially with a hoe)”)[/li][ul]
[li]Luganda: -lim-[/li][li]Swahili: -lima[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-549ee68a14d36e49e8a99341c399c05d
“Drink”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °nyu[/li][LIST]
[li]Mossi: nyu[/li][li]Chala: nyõ[/li][li]Gbeya: nɔ[/li][li]Akan (Twi): nom[/li][li]Ewe: no[/li][li]Ẹdo: nwo[/li][li]Longuda: nyo[/li][li]Igbo: ṅu[/li][li]Efik: ŋwoŋ[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *nyó[/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: kunywa[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Give”:

[ul]
[li]Gola: nyã[/li][li]Balanta: nya[/li][li]Ewe: na[/li][li]Ẹdo: na[/li][li]Igbo: nyé[/li][LIST]
[li]cf., Proto-Igboid *níŋé[/li][/ul]
[li]Tiv: na[/li][li]Yungur: na[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *nínk-[/li][/LIST]
“Cough”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °kual- ~ °kuan- ~ °kwác-[/li][LIST]
[li]Akan: -wáw[/li][li]Yoruba: ikọ[/li][li]Igbo: -kwa, ụkwara (cf., Proto-Igboid: *-kʷá)[/li][li]Proto-Lower Cross: *ù-kɔ́ŋ[/li][LIST]
[li]Efik: ì-kɔŋ [44][/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Bantu: i-kɔ́ ~ *-kódud- ~ *-kópud- (possible reflex)[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Mouth”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-nu ~ °nia[/li][LIST]
[li]Gola: o-nyãã̀[/li][li]Proto-Gbaya: nú[/li][LIST]
[li]Gbeya: nú [45][/li][/ul]
[li]Bwamu: nyii[/li][li]Akan (Twi): ano[/li][li]Ewe: nu[/li][li]Yoruba: ẹnu[/li][li]Ẹdo: ùnũ[/li][li]Igbo: ọnụ[/li][li]Efik: inwa[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: -nυà[/li][ul]
[li]Kinyarwanda: umunwa[/li][li]Swahili: kinywa[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Flame, light, lightning”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °man- ~ °mal-[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: manaango (“lightning, thunder”)[/li][li]Igala: ɔ̀màmàɲà (“lightning, thunder”)[/li][li]Igbo: àmụmà (“lightning, thunder”)[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-f9086e9645a7f98ce9c72d9e68e00d42
“Ear”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-tu[/li][LIST]
[li]Kanjaga: tu(i)[/li][li]Proto-Ghana-Togo Mountains: *ku-túe ~ a-túe [46][/li][li]Akan (Twi): aso[/li][li]Ewe: to[/li][li]Yoruba: eti[/li][li]Igbo: ntị[/li][li]Efik: utong[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *tʊ́ì[/li][LIST]
[li]Kinyarwanda: ugutwi[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-bf0a3edb6c1b8d1a19bb9765851e4e87
“Tooth”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °nyin[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: nyiin-de [47][/li][li]Serer: ñiiñ [48][/li][li]Wolof: b-ëñ b- ~ gëñ y-(possible reflex) [49][/li][li]Manjak: niŋ [50][/li][li]Proto-Gbaya: *ɲín[/li][LIST]
[li]Mbodomo: ɲíní[/li][/ul]
[li]Yoruba: enyi[/li][li]***Proto-Mande: *ɲíŋ[/li][ul]
[li]Mandinka: nying(o)[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Bone”:

[ul]
[li]Proto-Gur: *ʔob ~ *ʔo[/li][LIST]
[li]Proto-Oti-Volta: *kob; *kpab[/li][li]Gurunsi: kõbrɛ ~ kõba[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Fali: *kopfti[/li][li]Proto-Ghana-Togo Mountains: li-kúpá[/li][li]Igbo: ọkpụkpụ[/li][li]Tarok: akúp[/li][li]Proto-Lower Cross: ɔ́-kpɔ[/li][ul]
[li]Efik: ɔ-kp ́ɔ[/li][/ul]
[li]Proto-Bantu: *-kúpà[/li][/LIST]
https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-88b86a49d8d5fd0dfd3f6d954d5156a0
“Tree”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-te ~ °-ti[/li][LIST]
[li]Biafada: bu-ri [51][/li][li]Konyagi: æ-tə́x (possible reflex) [52][/li][li]Proto-Gbaya: *tè[/li][LIST]
[li]Manza: tè[/li][/ul]
[li]Yoruba: ìtí ~ ìtí igi (“tree trunk”)[/li][li]Igbo: osisi (reduplication of Proto-Igboid *ti)[/li][li]Proto-Lower Cross: *é-tíé[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *tí [53][/li][ul]
[li]Swahili: mti[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: *tɛ̰ɪ̰[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Hill”: [54]

[ul]
[li]Root: °tʊnd(-)[/li][LIST]
[li]Wolof: tund[/li][li]Manjak: ntʊnda[/li][li]Bapen: ɛ-tʌnd[/li][li]Proto-Gbaya: *tɔ̃[/li][li]Proto-Kru: *tōɖō[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *tʊ̀ndà[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“Come”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °ba ~ bya ~ bía[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: war (possible reflex)[/li][li]Serer: bya[/li][li]Deg: bà[/li][li]Tutrugbu: bá[/li][li]Akan (Twi): bà[/li][li]Ewe: vá[/li][li]Yoruba: wa[/li][li]Igbo: bịa[/li][li]Tarok: ɓá[/li][li]***Proto-Ijoid: *ɓo [55][/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“Animal ~ Meat”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °-nama[/li][LIST]
[li]Wolof: ñam (“eat”) [56][/li][li]Fula: nyaam (“eat”)[/li][li]Akan (Twi): nam[/li][li]Proto-Gbe: *-lã[/li][LIST]
[li]Fon: làn[/li][/ul]
[li]Yoruba: ẹran[/li][li]Igbo: anụ[/li][li]Efik: unam[/li][li]Esimbi: ɛnyimi[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *-ɲàmà [57][/li][ul]
[li]Swahili: nyama[/li][li]Zulu: ínyama[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: *nãmã[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Dog”:

[ul]
[li]Root: °búá[/li][LIST]
[li]Fula: boosaaru ~ boosaji [58][/li][li]Serer: o-ɓox [59][/li][li]Pajade: ci-baa [60][/li][li]Konyagi: i-vé [61][/li][li]Manjak: ʊ-bʊs [62][/li][li]Proto-Cangin: *ɓuh [63][/li][LIST]
[li]Lehar: ɓu̟u[/li][li]Ndut: ɓux f-[/li][/ul]
[li]Yungur: bwe[/li][li]Tutrugbu: ebu[/li][li]Nupe: aba[/li][li]Yoruba: aja (cf., Proto-Yoruba *abyá)[/li][li]Kam: wō[/li][li]Uhami: àbùà[/li][li]Efik: ebua[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *mbʊ́à[/li][ul]
[li]Swahili: mbwa[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: *obiri[/li][/LIST]
[/LIST]
“Elephant”:

[ul]
[li]Wolof: ñey [64][/li][li]Fula: nyiiwa [65][/li][li]Konyagi: i-ñí [66][/li][li]Gubëeher: ja-ñix [67][/li][li]Yoruba: erin[/li][li]Edo: eni[/li][li]Igbo: enyi[/li][li]Ibibio: é-níìn[/li][/ul]
“Goat”:

[ul]
[li]Tegali: e-mbʊt (possible reflex) [68][/li][li]Tumale: yimbʊte (possible reflex) [69][/li][li]Tima: cɪmɪð (possible reflex) [70][/li][li]Wolof: bëy w- [71][/li][li]Fula: mbee-wa [72][/li][li]Serer: fa-mbe [73][/li][li]Yoruba: ewure[/li][li]Igbo: ewu[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: mbʊ́dì[/li][LIST]
[li]Swahili: mbuzi[/li][/ul]
[li]***Proto-Ijoid: *oɓori[/li][/LIST]
“Bird”:

[ul]
[li]Pajade: (u)noune[/li][li]Kanjaga: nui[/li][li]Mossi: noa[/li][li]Akan (Twi): anoma[/li][li]Kam: nu[/li][li]Igbo: nnụnụ[/li][li]Efik: enuen[/li][li]Proto-Bantu: *-noni ~ *-nʊ̀nɪ́[/li][LIST]
[li]Kinyarwanda: inyoni[/li][li]Zulu: inyoni[/li][/ul]
[/LIST]
“Cow”:

[ul]
[li]Fula: nagge[/li][li]Serer: nik[/li][li]Sisaala: no(ho)[/li][li]Idoma: ɛna[/li][li]Jaba: nyak[/li][li]Ibibio: é-nâŋ[/li][li]Efik: enang[/li][li]Jukun: na[/li][li]Yungur: nya[/li][/ul]
Footnotes

[1] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[2] https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/67174/1/The_Gbeya_Language.pdf
[3] https://www.iaaw.hu-berlin.de/de/region/afrika/afrika/linguistik/mitarbeiter/1683070/dokumente/the-wider-upper-niger-region-just-a-niger-kordofanian-extension-or-a-hub-of-linguistic-remnants
[4] https://www.iaaw.hu-berlin.de/de/region/afrika/afrika/linguistik/mitarbeiter/1683070/dokumente/the-wider-upper-niger-region-just-a-niger-kordofanian-extension-or-a-hub-of-linguistic-remnants
[5] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/VN/Igboid/Comparative%20Igboid%20complete.pdf
[6] https://sci-hub.st/https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110421668-002
[7] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[8] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[9] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[10] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[11] Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/leyǵʰ- - Wiktionary
[12] http://www.cog.brown.edu/people/demuth/Articles/1986DemuthFaraclas&Marchese.pdf
[13] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[14] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[15] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[16] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[17] https://sci-hub.st/https://www.jstor.org/stable/3628626
[18] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[19] http://people.bu.edu/manfredi/BeforeWazobia.pdf
[20] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[21] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[22] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[23] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[24] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[25] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[26] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[27] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/Kordofanian/Kordofanian%20and%20Niger-Congo.pdf
[28] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[29] https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/67174/1/The_Gbeya_Language.pdf
[30] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[31] https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01375776/document
[32] https://www.jolr.ru/files/(10)jlr2009-1(107-142).pdf
[33] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[34] https://sci-hub.st/https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108283991.009
[35] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/General/Westermann%20complete.pdf
[36] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[37] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[38] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/General/Westermann%20complete.pdf
[39] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/Kordofanian/Kordofanian%20and%20Niger-Congo.pdf
[40] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[41] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[42] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[43] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[44] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/BC/Cross%20River/Lower%20Cross/Lower%20Cross%20wordlists%20Unicode.pdf
[45] https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/67174/1/The_Gbeya_Language.pdf
[46] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/GTML%20Website/HoWorkshop2006/Papers/Blench%20GTML%20grouping%20paper%20Ho%202006.pdf
[47] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[48] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[49] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[50] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[51] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[52] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[53] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[54] https://refubium.fu-berlin.de/bitstream/handle/fub188/22798/191-3-1156-2-10-20180815.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
[55] http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/Ijoid/General/Proto-Ijoid%20reconstructions.pdf
[56] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[57] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[58] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[59] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[60] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[61] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[62] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[63] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[64] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[65] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[66] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[67] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[68] The comparative method and language change in accretion zones: A view from the Nuba Mountains
[69] The comparative method and language change in accretion zones: A view from the Nuba Mountains
[70] The comparative method and language change in accretion zones: A view from the Nuba Mountains
[71] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[72] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages
[73] The Historical Origin of Consonant Mutation in the Atlantic Languages

@upepo @Tom Bayeye @Simiyu22 @Ndindu

There’s your larger sample for different words.

[ATTACH=full]356371[/ATTACH]
Tulimaliza hii topic

i never ended it, you just said some nonsense stuff and i clowned you. Youre not really interested which is why u don’t understand nor know what you’re talking about, I only pinged you to let you know there are more cognates then meat(which wouldn’t have diffused btw, that is peak baboon thinking)

Where’s your other posts
On this topic

Shįt sherlock!!! you’re smart too

Do you know what grinds my gears? Smart folks that cant differenciate simple adverbs,conjuction and preposition words likeTHAN and THEN. That really fcuks me up.So much for baboonerry thinking

thinking that the word “meat” was adopted by tribes as far as senegal to south Africa because “all africans were hunter gatherers” which is false, is peak baboon thinking. People on this site such as yourself are actually quite slow, hurtful at times really. Even the somalis on somalispot are not this dense at such simple things

Kwa hivyo mtu akijua kuongea kijaluo yeye ni river lake nilote mara io hio?!

Na hio lugha ya mbogi genje itaingia category gani?

For all we know maybe what you call the Kikuyu language was actually sheng from a collection of other languages. Ever thought of that?

‘Assimilated’ is the word,just like ‘mesa’ in spanish is meza in swahili or ‘champal’,‘sanduk’ in hindi is champali and sanduku in swahili . Cognitive or not ,languages will evolve and soon we will be using chinese cognates,chill out bruh,its not that serious

assimilated the same word from senegal to south Africa? The only way that would happen is if they are cognates from a common ancestor language. U know what, stop commenting under my threads fool, no reason to even bother responding to u again

Niger Congo language cognate for meat/Asili ya lugha ya Niger-Kongo kwa neno nyama - General - Kenya Talk

Hiyo ya kifo ndio imenishangaza.

It is generally accepted that the Dogon languages belong to the Niger–Congo language family, though the evidence is weak.[citation needed][why?] They have been linked to the Mande subfamily but also to Gur. In a recent overview of the Niger–Congo family, Dogon is treated as an independent branch

Even western African languages don’t relate.
The Niger-congo language group is just a farce attempt to prove out of West Africa hypothesis.There are click sounds in South African Bantu groups,sure you can use that to connect them to khwe khwe speakers.Its even more close than your so called cognates or weak attempt.

Question of misri appearing in not one but different Bantu groups,separated for years yet a common belief on northern origin.Movement and population distribution support a north to south migration.Even Cameroonians don’t have any close relation to Bantu groups.

And then support one white man’s hypothesis over all this information.
In any case out of West Africa can only hold if the west African ethnic groups didn’t migrate into the area and have been there for eternity.

Whatever you say you donkey shït. I thought you’d give up already but here you are with your crackbarained explanation again. Can you find for me the cognitive of “eat a bag of dìcks” please.Thank you

The Clicks in the south African bantu languages are burrowed, they’re not originally from their language, furthermore the rest of what you have said is untrue, there are plenty of cameroonina bantu groups and a lot of them speak languages mostly closely related to bantu ones though distinct.
Genetic evidence alone has proven bantu speakers originated as a primtive group of farmers from west Africa and got pushed out by larger more aggressive tribes, nevertheless here are some Cameroonian bantu groups
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duala_people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makaa_people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Njem_people

Bantoid/Semi Bantu languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantoid_languages

As for your comment on west African languages, this is untrue, for most of the subfamilies their relation is cannon and agreed on, the likely unrelated families are ijoid, Mande, and possibly Dogon, along with Kordofanian which is probably a group of language isolates.

As it happens Niger Congo speakers arent even the aboriginal west africans, the earliest niger congo speakers were from mali, and likely in the sahel area, they expanded through west Africa with superior hunting tools, poisoned arrows and dogs acquired from back migrating eurasains.